Davis: Do you want to chat about Turin?

Places Around Turin

Turin

Biella

Asti

Piedmont

Barolo

Cannobio

Novara

Alessandria

Stresa

Alba

Langhe

Verbania

Arona

Baveno

Domodossola

Parella

Colletto Fava

Ivrea

General View

Turin was the first capital of modern Italy, and was the host of the 2006 Winter Olympic Games.. While it's not a famous tourist destination like Florence or Rome, the setting is pleasant, with the Po River flowing through the city, the genteel hills overlooking the city and scattered with pleasant villas and surrounded by the Italian Alps off in the distance.. This is why the famous architect Le Corbusier defined Turin as " the city with the most beautiful natural location in the world ".. Turin is an important city of technology and industry, and the FIAT automobile company is based here..

(The ' T ' in the name stands for Torino; F I A T = Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino, which translates as; Italian Automobile (manu) Factory Turin.) It was also the birthplace to many important cultural and political movements in Italy.. Turin inhabitants are well known across Italy for their understatement and composure and the city reflects this attitude.. Many people consider Torino the European capital of Baroque; many palaces and churches were built in this style during the kingdom of the Savoia..

It isn't the typical Italian city, with red and yellow buildings; is a bit more French, so much that is also called " the little Paris "; wide boulevards with white buildings make the city center more similar to Paris.. Around the city, a crown of churches and castles, some up on a hilltop, some lost in a park, provide plenty of interesting views. Turin also has an aristocratic atmosphere - the centre is filled with posh 19th century cafes, regal like arcaded mansions, debonair glittering restaurants, and grand churches..

Turin is home to the famous Shroud of Turin. More recently, it has become the home of the Slow Food Movement..

General Info

Turin; Piedmontese Turin, pronounced; Latin Augusta Taurinorum is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region, located mainly on the left bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch The population of the city proper is 911,823 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants.. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million..

The city has a rich culture and history, and is known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues.. Turin is well known for its Renaissance baroque, rococo, neo classical, and Art Nouveau architecture.. Much of the city's public squares, castles, gardens and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built in the 16th and 18th century, after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy was moved to Turin from Chambery as part of the urban expansion..

Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty, for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour.. The city currently hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea and gymnasia, such as the six century old University of Turin and the Turin Polytechnic.. Prestigious and important museums, such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana are also found in the city. Turin's several monuments and sights make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations, and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008..

The city used to be a major European political centre, being Italy's first capital city in 1861 and being home to the House of Savoy, Italy's royal family.. Even though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, it became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and currently is one of Italy's main industrial centres, being part of the famous " industrial triangle ", along with Milan and Genoa.. Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of 58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power, and as of 2010 has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma - world city..

Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry.. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C., the headquarters of automobile manufacturers FIAT, Lancia and Alfa Romeo, Iveco and as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics.. Several International Space Station modules, such as Harmony and Columbus, were also manufactured in Turin. It was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy from 1563, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy..

It is often referred to as the Capital of the Alps. Other popular epithets are the Automobile Capital of Italy and the Detroit of Italy, as it is home of FIAT; in Italy it is also dubbed la capitale Sabauda..

What To See

Turin's main attractions include important baroque palaces and churches, a regular and attractive street grid, an extensive network of arcades, famous coffee shops and a number of world renowned museums.. Mole Antonelliana, Via Montebello, 20. Turin's landmark building was completed in 1888 as a synagogue. The 167.5 meter tower is the highest work of masonry in Europe and it now contains one of the finest cinema museums of Europe.. A lift is available to reach the top. lift; €7.. The National Cinema Museum, Via Montebello, 20, ☎ + 39 011 813 8511. The museum opened in July 2000 in the Mole Antonelliana, a building that has come to symbolize Turin..

The exhibition space covers 3,200 square meters and spans five floors.. The themes of the floors are the archaeology of cinema, the video camera, a collection of cinema posters, video installations (including a number of small rooms screening clips on themes such as Turin in the movies, love stories and experimental film), and The Great Temple (where you recline in comfortable red chairs and watch classic Italian films projected on giant screens overhead).. In a spectacular setting the museum offers artifacts from the collection of the Maria Adrianna Prolo Foundation including magic lanterns, optical illusions, photographs, drawings, models and other curious items. Amongst a fascinating array of other movie memorabilia, be sure to check out the original cape worn by Christopher Reeve in Superman..

If you're a certain age, that's incredibly exciting ! If you plan to visit both the museum and the tower, the combined ticket costs €14. Museum; €10.. Museo dell'Automobile (Also Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia, Biscaretti for short), Corso Unita d'Italia, 40, ☎ + 39 011 677666. The collection houses over 170 vehicles, from 18th century carriages to Formula 1 racers, and lots of gorgeous red sports cars.. The museum reopened in March 2011 after a three years long renovation that transformed it in one of the hot spot of the city, a " must see "..

The Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist (Duomo di San Giovanni), Piazza San Giovanni, ☎ + 39 011 436 1540. The Cathedral's Chapel of the Shroud houses the controversial Shroud of Turin, which is stored in a vault below the Duomo.. It is only displayed by papal decree. Information about the shroud, viewings, and reservations can be made at the official site.. Egyptian Museum, Via Accademia delle Scienze, 6, ☎ 011 561 7776NOCC. Houses the most important collection of ancient Egyptian artefacts outside Cairo. Founded in 1824 by King Carlo Felice after acquiring archaeologist Drovetti's collection, the museum contains 30,000 exhibits..

It documents the history and civilization of Egypt from the palaeolithic to the Coptic era through unique exhibits and collections of objects d'art, articles of daily use and funeral furnishings (including the Altar of Isis, the canvas painted by Gebelein, the intact tombs of Kha and Merit, and the exceptional cliff temple to Ellesjia).. It is also intelligently laid out and the exhibits are lovingly preserved. Despite a big renovation is currently taking place, the museum is open every day except Mondays and 25th December, ticket € 7,5..

The end of the works is scheduled for 2013. €7.50.. Palazzo Madama, Piazza Castello. Recently re opened after a long refurbishment, this wonderful hybrid of a baroque palace and a medieval castle is attracting many tourists. It was home of the regent queens of Savoy, and is a mix of medieval and baroque rooms.. It now houses the City Museum of Ancient Art, which has an eclectic collection of church art, paintings, ancient sculpture, porcelain, ceramics, archaeological artefacts and some fascinating scenes of life in Torino in times gone by..

On the second floor there's a room with red sofas to take a rest after the visit, with a magnificent chandelier, and a cafeteria. The moat contains a medieval castle garden, and the tower offers a beautiful view over Turin.. Palazzo Carignano (Carignano Palace), Via Accademia delle Scienze 5 (close to Piazza Castello), ☎ + 39 011 562 3719.. Quadrilatero Romano. Full of restaurants, it is the old Roman town, north west of Piazza Castello.. Via Garibaldi. Pedestrian only shopping zone between Piazza Castello and Piazza Statuto..

Galleria Subalpina. A pedestrian passage from Piazza Castello and Piazza Carlo Alberto. One of the most elegant place of the city.. Valentino Park (Parco del Valentino). the biggest park in Turin central area. This park is situated along the Po river and in its area you can find the Valentino Castle, and the Medieval Village (Borgo Medievale).. Cathedral of Superga (Superga Basilica), Strada Basilica di Superga, 73, ☎ + 39 011 899 7456. On top of the hill near Turin, this cathedral was built in thanksgiving for a victorious battle against French..

Today, it houses the tombs of the House of Savoy. In 1949 a plane carrying the entire Turin FC team crashed near the cathedral, killing one of the greatest football teams ever.. At the crash site a plate memorializes the dead. The top of the hill offers the best view of Turin, with the magnificent Alps in the background. You can reach the top by car but also by a little chain train.. Ask for the Trenino per Superga. Chain train with return € 6. Take the straicase inside the church to reach the top, € 3 (July 2012)..

Castello di Rivoli, Piazzale Mafalda di Savoia, ☎ + 39 011 956 5222. In the small town of Rivoli, east of Turin. Houses one of Europe's most important Contemporary Art Museums.. The Castle of Rivoli is a unfinished XVIII castle that stands on top of Rivoli hills. Corso Francia (France Road) is one of the world's longest streets and was built because of the desire of the House of Savoy to connect Royal Palace in the center of Turin with Rivoli Castle.. You can reach it by bus or taxi.. La Venaria Reale. Outside the town of Venaria, 10 kilometres north east of Turin..

Restored to the baroque magnificence that inspired it when it was built in the mid 17th century for duke Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia, the Reggia of Venaria Reale was inaugurated in October 2007, after two centuries of abandon and decay, and eight years of intense restoration.. In the first year since it opened to the public, Venaria Reale has welcomed approximately 1.000.000 visitors becoming one of the most popular spot in Italy.. The enormous palace, which has a surface area of over 80,000 square metres, contains some of the most outstanding examples of European baroque architecture; the enchanting Salone di Diana, designed by Amedeo di Castellamonte, the solemnity of the Galleria Grande and the chapel of Sant'Uberto, and the immense complex of the Scuderie, designed by the 17th century genius, Filippo Juvarra..

The Gardens now represent a close combination of ancient and modern. Venaria Reale, which was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, is at the centre of the circuit of Royal Residences in Piedmont.. To get there; Venaria Express " shuttle bus operated by GTT (freephone number; 800 019152 www comune torino it / gtt Bus; routes 72, 11 (freephone number; 800 019152 - www comune torino it / gtt) Train; Turin Ceres line (freephone number; 800 019152 - www comune torino it / gtt) Car; Torino Nord orbital road, Venaria or Savonera / Venaria exit..

GTT bus ticket with return € 5. Entrance to the Venaria 15 € (July 2012). River Po Park. The Piedmontese part of the longest river of Italy is protected as a natural park. Its benches ar full of interesting and unexpected views onwards the town and the hill and are enriched by the Castle of Valentino, Medieval Burgh and Gran Madre church, which mirror on river Po.. Armeria Reale (Royal Armoury), Piazza Castello, Turin, Italy, ☎ 011543889NOCC. 1 Turin's Royal Armoury contains one of the best exhibits of arms in Europe, dating back to the 16th century..

The collection was put together in 1833 by Sardinian king Charles Albert.. Porta Palazzo market. A 5 minutes walking distance from Piazza Castello, at the very beginning of the multi cultural quarter, is one of the biggest, cheapest and most diverse markets in Europe.. Turin has lots of street markets, all around the city, that serve thousands of people every day. Porta Palazzo is the best, especially for foodstuffs, cheap clothes, housewares, ethnic products, handicrafts, craftsmen, and second hand stuff..

The markets are open every weekday morning and all day long on Saturday. On Sunday Porta Palazzo houses a smaller flea market. Take a walk there, keep track of your wallet and pockets, and explore its multicultural, colored humanity.. Museo Nazionale della Montagna Duca degli Abruzzi, Piazzale Monte dei Capuccini, 7.

What To Do

A trip to Superga by chain train from Sassi to see the magnificent view of Turin from there. Sassi is reached by tram 15 (As of July 2012 the tram is temporary out of service and the path of the line is serviced by buses).. A walk on Via Roma from Porta Nuova Station to Piazza Castello through Piazza San Carlo to see how elegant this city can be.. A walk on Via Po from Piazza Castello to Piazza Vittorio and further to the Gran Madre Church. Stop on the bridge and enjoy the beautiful view of the Po river..

Have a break in one of the historic cafes located around Piazza Castello, such as Mulassano or Baratti & Milano (established in 1873).. Play hit ball, a sport born in Turin in 1986 and today the very specialty of the city. Various associations provide free trials..

How To Get In

Turin's international airport is placed 15 km north of the city and is named after Italy's former President Sandro Pertini. It is located in the town of Caselle, connected to Turin city by a convenient motorway.. The main carriers to reach Torino from abroad are Lufthansa, Air France, British Airways and Alitalia if flying from Rome or Naples, Italy's flagship airline, which operates flight from some European and Italian cities.. Caselle is also a destination for some low fares airlines, for example Ryanair and Easyjet..

The airport is connected to the city by train (to the station of Dora GTT, which is useless; arriving at the Dora GTT really is like arriving in the middle of nowhere), bus (with a regional bus service, which is long) and taxi (€30 one way to city centre at December 2010).. Private cars are in the €75 range.. The SADEM bus service runs every 30-40 minutes from the airport to Torino's Porta Susa and Porta Nuova train stations. If you buy a ticket at a ticket kiosk inside the airport terminal, it will cost €6.50..

If you buy it on the bus, it's €7. If you bought the Turin + Piemonte Card, the ride is only €5. The voyage from the airport to the center of the city takes approximately 40 minutes.. The TERRAVISION bus service started in August 2013, there are stops in the city as Lingotto station and Torino Esposizioni, the one way ticket costs 5,50 €, instead the return 9,50 €. Turin is also reached from Malpensa airport, which may be cheaper to fly to. There is a bus service running five times daily between the city and the airport, managed by SADEM..

The ride lasts 2 hours and costs €20 (as of January 18, 2013). Please note that tickets to / from Malpensa airport must be purchased in advance on SADEM website (English instructions available).. Turin has three main railway stations, Porta Nuova, Porta Susa and Lingotto FS.. Generally speaking, Porta Nuova and Porta Susa are stations dedicated to mid range and long range trains.. Porta Susa (under renovation) serves trains to all northern regions of Italy (Milan, Venice, Aosta, and also Paris), while Porta Nuova serves especially trains to the south (Genoa, Florence, Rome, Bologna)..

You'd better check in advance where you need to go. Many trains also stops in both stations. All trains coming from / going to the south of Turin, depart from Porta Nuova via Lingotto FS.. All stations are managed by Trenitalia, the Italian state railways.. A4. From Milan and Venice (six lane toll motorway).. A5. From Ivrea and Aosta (four lane toll motorway).. A6. From Fossano, Ceva, and Savona (four lane toll motorway).. A21. From Asti, Alessandria, Genoa, and Piacenza (four lane toll motorway)..

A32. From Frejus and France (four lane toll motorway).. A55. From Pinerolo (four lane toll motorway).. There are many buses from Milan, milan airports, Lyon, Genoa. Check the internet.

Videos

What To Do

A trip to Superga by chain train from Sassi to see the magnificent view of Turin from there. Sassi is reached by tram 15 (As of July 2012 the tram is temporary out of service and the path of the line is serviced by buses).. A walk on Via Roma from Porta Nuova Station to Piazza Castello through Piazza San Carlo to see how elegant this city can be.. A walk on Via Po from Piazza Castello to Piazza Vittorio and further to the Gran Madre Church. Stop on the bridge and enjoy the beautiful view of the Po river..

Have a break in one of the historic cafes located around Piazza Castello, such as Mulassano or Baratti & Milano (established in 1873).. Play hit ball, a sport born in Turin in 1986 and today the very specialty of the city. Various associations provide free trials..

How To Get In

Turin's international airport is placed 15 km north of the city and is named after Italy's former President Sandro Pertini. It is located in the town of Caselle, connected to Turin city by a convenient motorway.. The main carriers to reach Torino from abroad are Lufthansa, Air France, British Airways and Alitalia if flying from Rome or Naples, Italy's flagship airline, which operates flight from some European and Italian cities.. Caselle is also a destination for some low fares airlines, for example Ryanair and Easyjet..

The airport is connected to the city by train (to the station of Dora GTT, which is useless; arriving at the Dora GTT really is like arriving in the middle of nowhere), bus (with a regional bus service, which is long) and taxi (€30 one way to city centre at December 2010).. Private cars are in the €75 range.. The SADEM bus service runs every 30-40 minutes from the airport to Torino's Porta Susa and Porta Nuova train stations. If you buy a ticket at a ticket kiosk inside the airport terminal, it will cost €6.50..

If you buy it on the bus, it's €7. If you bought the Turin + Piemonte Card, the ride is only €5. The voyage from the airport to the center of the city takes approximately 40 minutes.. The TERRAVISION bus service started in August 2013, there are stops in the city as Lingotto station and Torino Esposizioni, the one way ticket costs 5,50 €, instead the return 9,50 €. Turin is also reached from Malpensa airport, which may be cheaper to fly to. There is a bus service running five times daily between the city and the airport, managed by SADEM..

The ride lasts 2 hours and costs €20 (as of January 18, 2013). Please note that tickets to / from Malpensa airport must be purchased in advance on SADEM website (English instructions available).. Turin has three main railway stations, Porta Nuova, Porta Susa and Lingotto FS.. Generally speaking, Porta Nuova and Porta Susa are stations dedicated to mid range and long range trains.. Porta Susa (under renovation) serves trains to all northern regions of Italy (Milan, Venice, Aosta, and also Paris), while Porta Nuova serves especially trains to the south (Genoa, Florence, Rome, Bologna)..

You'd better check in advance where you need to go. Many trains also stops in both stations. All trains coming from / going to the south of Turin, depart from Porta Nuova via Lingotto FS.. All stations are managed by Trenitalia, the Italian state railways.. A4. From Milan and Venice (six lane toll motorway).. A5. From Ivrea and Aosta (four lane toll motorway).. A6. From Fossano, Ceva, and Savona (four lane toll motorway).. A21. From Asti, Alessandria, Genoa, and Piacenza (four lane toll motorway)..

A32. From Frejus and France (four lane toll motorway).. A55. From Pinerolo (four lane toll motorway).. There are many buses from Milan, milan airports, Lyon, Genoa. Check the internet.

How To Get Around

Turin has an efficient system of city connections with buses and trams managed by GTT. Currently, the first driverless, ultra modern underground line was opened for the Olympics in 2006. Both urban and suburban areas are served by an efficient network.. Buses and trams cross the city from morning to late at night.. The hard part of bus travel is remembering you must buy your ticket before you get on the bus. All tabaccherie (tobacconists) sell bus tickets as do some bars and various ticket offices at stations..

There's possibly a bewildering array of tickets from singles to annual season tickets. Generally the longer the ticket the greater the saving but for many season tickets of one week or more you'll need a separate card with photo ID which costs very little and can usually be issued on the spot by the ticket issuer.. It's not necessary for single tickets or, in Turin, weekly town tickets.. You may run into ticket inspectors any time, everywhere, even on night buses, but they are most of the time easily recognizable. Most of them do not speak English and some of them may behave rude..

Be sure take your ticket / pass on you and validate it before the first stop after you get on the bus. Once you are caught, you may pay a certain amount of fee about €25 right on the bus.. If you pay later, this amount may increase to €36. If you forgot to take your pass / valid ticket with you, you may tell the inspectors your situation and get a fine ticket of 10 euro.. Then you go the GTT office with your fine ticket and your pass / valid ticket and pay. Some says if you are not Italian, the fee will not reach you..

That's a good question. Network map is available at the GTT website. The map shows all the bus and tram lines and the metro line. On 5T website it's also possible to check real time transits for every stops of GTT network and plan your routes using public transportation.. You're pretty safe in Turin with every bus or tram. The stops are clearly marked with yellow signs and maps of the city and public lines. If it seems a very long list your stop will be highlighted in grey and buses go from the bottom to top direction..

If it seems a rather short list with just the highlights you probably see an arrow pointing down on the left of the sign, showing stops go from top to bottom. It takes a bit of getting used to !. Some of the more modern and popular trams and buses have onboard indicators and announcements of the forthcoming stops. But don't bank on it.. All buses are divided into urban and suburban. In Turin the urban tickets allow you to hop on and off of as many town buses as you like within 90 minutes of validating your ticket (fare at 1,50 € in 2012)..

Suburban tickets cost a little more and can get you anywhere up to 20km on some routes (1,70 € in 2012). They are also valid for trains within the same area. There's a bit of confusing overlap with some areas appearing to be both urban and suburban.. If in doubt buy the suburban ticket, it's a lot cheaper than a fine.. You can also buy your tickets in a ' blocchetto ' of 5 or 15, which works out a reasonable amount cheaper.. There are daily (or 2 day or 3 day) tickets for town travel as well as various weekly and monthly combinations. If you plan to stay thee days and explore the city a 3 day pass is recommended and costs €10 valid in all the urban network and all means of transport..

Standard bus services run from around 06; 00-00; 30.. From 00; 30 (first departure from suburbs) to 05; 00 (last departure from city centre), on Friday and Saturday night, starts night bus service managed by GTT (called GTT Nightbuster) with 10 bus lines connecting piazza Vittorio Veneto, in the city centre, to various Turin's suburbs and vice versa.. All night buses run at 1 hour frequency.. Things get a little more complicated when you need to go further afield on the bus. Each town, district or region seems to have its own bus service. Generally in Turin there is a healthy selection of blue buses run by SADEM and other companies which tend to go further afield..

If possible still try to buy your ticket before you get on the bus, although vendors are not as numerous. Generally look around for the nearest tobacconist, cafe or news stand.. It should also be possible to buy your ticket on the bus, but this will cost up to 60 cents more and you may get a certain amount of abuse from driver who plainly is not on a percentage.. This also applies to the blue buses between Porta Nuova and Turin airport. There's a kiosk and two vending machines (usually out of action) at the airport and cafes near the terminal in Turin where you can buy tickets for €5..

In theory the bus driver should be able to sell you a ticket but don't bank on it.. Torino and Piemonde Card is certainly worth its money if you plan to visit most places on the " See " section above. Using the three day (72 hours) option and paying €29 you have free access to all the museums and other attractions of the city listed above.. You also can use free the Venaria Reale bus service, which is operated by GTT, to travel to Venaria and see the restorated Palace. Of course the entry to the Palace is also covered by the pass (2 days €25, 5 days €34, 7 days €37). Also don't miss the opportunity to use the Navebus service and take a boat tour in the river Po. This service is also operated by GGT and is included in your pass..

As of July 2012 the Torino and Piemonte Card does not included free travel in the public transport. The best option is to buy a separate pass for that. However the Card entitles you with free travel from Dora Station to Torino International Airport, service operated by GTT. As mentioned the Card is very attractive and cost effective if you plan to visit the top attractions of the city.. Trip with chain train to Superga is also included with the small fee to reach the top of the church and a guided visit to the tombs of the Savoy Royal family..

The City of Turin has recently completed a network of bicycle paths throughout the city. However, a lot still has to be done, and cycling outside the paths (and sometimes even on them) can be quite tricky.. From 2010, a bike sharing service provided by a company named ToBike is all across the city center. It's very difficult to find a ticket if you are not resident. It is possible to buy a ticket at the Tobike shop located in Via Santa Chiara 26 / F. Driving around the town is fun but not for the faint hearted, although not as challenges as other Italian cities. Note that some drivers regard red lights as advisory and speed lints tend also to be a guideline..

A good parking garage in the centre under the Piazza Vittorio Veneto is Parcheggio Vittorio Park. Car Rentals If you would like to rent a car, you can find all the main car hire companies at Turin Airport. Car rentals companies are grouped together immediately in front of the Domestic Arrivals, Ground Floor Level Zero.. Taxis in Torino start the meter the moment your call is received. It is not customary to hail a taxi on the street.. Pronto Taxi, ☎ + 39-011-5737.. Radio Taxi, ☎ + 39-011-5730.. EuropTaxi, ☎ + 39-011-19839026..

Turin Airport, ☎ + 39-011-9914419.. Main Railway station - Torino Porta Nuova, ☎ + 39-011-547331.. Via Sacchi ang. C. so Vittorio Emanuele II, ☎ + 39-011-657139.. On the streets there are taxi parking. You can get one there..

What To Buy

Turin is not the best Italian city for shopping fashion brand, although there are plenty of small and expensive brand shops. It's a great spot for buying food and wines.. Bookstores are very popular in Turin, and there are many in the Via Po area. An innovative bookshop is in Via Cesare Battisti, near a lovely square, Piazza Carignano. Together with books you can also sit down and have a cup of coffee, or the famous aperitivo.. The Luxembourg International Bookshop is at V Accademia delle Scienze, 3 (just off Piazza Castello) and it's your best destination for English language novels, EFL teaching materials and foreign magazines and newspapers..

Via Roma. from Piazza Castello to the main railway station. Here you can find upscale brands like Hermes and Dolce & Gabbana, as well as cheap chains like H&M, United Colours of Benetton and Zara.. In Piazza CLN, behind Piazza San Carlo, there's a good branch of La Feltrinelli, a bookstore chain with shops all over the country. On the Via Roma there is also a branch of FNAC, the French book and multimedia chain, and an Apple Store.. Via Garibaldi. People in Turin say it's the longest pedestrian shopping street in Europe. There are clothes shops, bars, a Nike store and a new branch of the Japanese store Muji at the beginning of the street near Piazza Castello..

Via Po. is more alternative, with record shops and strange clothing stores under the arcades. This street goes from Piazza Castello to the Po River (Piazza Vittorio Veneto).. Via Pietro Micca. also houses upscale shops, but also one of the three shops of Frav. This 2 storey shop sells trendy clothes and is very popular in the city.. Via Lagrange (near Via Roma). is a pedestrian street and houses the Lagrange 15 shopping centre, with La Rinascente department store.. Le Gru. is a shopping center in Grugliasco, just outside Turin. Easy access TO the center on the 17 bus. Consider timing your return trip to one of the infrequent 66 buses, or take a taxi back..

Ikea store was in this area but now it has moved to Collegno.. The Quadrilatero Romano. is a trendy neighborhood north of Piazza Castello. It is the most ancient part of the city, and once was an unsafe area.. But now there are many design shops (Marcopolo, via Sant ' Agostino) and independent shops like Autopsie Vestimentaire or Born In Berlin in its pedestrian cobbled streets.. Lots of cosy restaurants and outdoor trendy cafes and bars. For dog lovers there is a dog park inside the fenced area around the Roman ruins..

Porta Palazzo. in Piazza della Republica (north of the Quadrilatero) is the largest open air market in Europe, and a spectacle that is well worth the visit (from 6AM to 13 pm working days, from 6AM to 19 pm Saturdays).. A newly built building by the famous architect Massimiliano Fuksas remains unused.. 8 Gallery and Eataly. 8 Gallery is a long corridor with various shops, located in Lingotto area, sharing the same building with Politecnico di Torino Automotive department and Turin University. Renovated by the famous architect Renzo Piano, it can be reached by bus No1, 35, 18, 17..

Or if you are near the Lingotto FS station, you can pass a bridge which directly connect to the 8 Gallery. It is one of the few shopping centers which still open at Sunday.. Next to 8 Gallery, Eataly is the greatest gourmet grocery in Europe; here you can buy, or eat, the best Italian food (guaranteed by Slow movement)..

What To Eat

Turin is probably the most free water town in the world. You can find public fountains really EVERYWHERE, from the center to the suburbs, that provides you free public water. And thanks to the near mountains, Turin public water is really good.. Lobelix, Piazza Savoia 4, ☎ + 39 011 436 7206. This bar serves a nightly ' aperitivo ' (aperitif) meaning that, with the purchase of a beverage one receives unlimited access to a food buffet, much the same way as ' tapas' are in Spain.. During this aperitivo time, all drinks - from water to cocktails - cost the same price, which is about €8. It begins at around 18; 00 and ends when the food runs out, usually at around 21; 00..

Gennaro Esposito, Via Giuseppe Luigi Passalacqua 1 / g (near Piazza Statuto), ☎ + 39 011 535 905. For about €15, sit at one of the few tables and one of the best pizzas in Turin.. Fratelli La Cozza, Corso Regio Parco 39, ☎ + 39 011 859 900. Outside the city center, this large pizzeria is brightly decorated and popular with large groups. If you're a couple, ask for a balcony seat for the best view !. Exki, Two locations in the center of Turin; Via XX Settembre 12 and Via Pietro Micca near Piazza Castello, ☎ + 39 011 560 4108. The healthiest fast food you'll find in Turin, Exki serves up fresh salads, soups, quiches and health minded entrees at low prices..

You'll also find a selection of fresh juices, organic beers and organic coffees.. Tre Galli, Via Sant'Agostino 25, ☎ + 39 011 5216027. Nice " Vineria " in the quadrilatero perfect for the aperitivo. Service is good and the ambiance is young and relaxed, not too trendy.. Here you can eat or just drink. Typical dishes of Torino reinvented.. Sfashion Cafe, Via Cesare Battisti 13, ☎ + 39 011 5160085. The owner and the decorations are the same of Fratelli La Cozza; kitsch an funny. Infact the owner is Piero Chiambretti, an Italian actor..

Good pizza and southern italy dishes. Perfectly located on the lovely Piazza Carlo Alberto, pedestrianized.. Pizzeria Gonzales, Via Mollieres, 1, ☎ + 39 011 779 0348. Locals Pizzaria, simple but good. Plus point, open on Mondays.. Il Frutto Permesso, Via del verne 16 (10060, Bibiana).. Locanda Belfiore, Siamo in Via Vignassa 21 a (Sant ' Antonino di Susa).. giusti mauro, via Maria Vittoria 21 (4 blocks east of via Roma), ☎ + 39 011 817 0604. Closed 2PM to 7; 30PM. frequented by almost only Italian diners, because it accepts only cash..

The menu does not vary between lunch and dinner. no nonsense, but good basic regional food at reasonable prices. below market.. Caffe dell Orologio, Via Morgari 16 / a, (Zona; San Salvario), ☎ + 39 011 5794274. The place is large and very beautiful; it still possesses its original character, which deeply impresses anyone entering it for the first time.. The lovely ambience and great staff make one feel their enthusiasm about everything on the menu.. L Birichin, Via Vincenzo Monti 16 / a,, ☎ + 39 011 65 74 57. $35 - $45..

Arcadia, Galleria Subalpina (Piazza Castello), ☎ + 39 011 56 13 898. beautiful place, sushi bar.. Trattoria Ala, Via Santa Giulia 24, ☎ + 39 011 81 74 778. For about 35 $ you will get delicious food and wine. Definitely to try Cantucci con vinsanto dessert.. Beware that they cook Tuscan food, so if you are looking for local food, you may not be in the very right place.. Spada Reale, Via Principe Amedeo 53 (near Piazza Vittorio Veneto), ☎ + 39 011 8171363. A classic restaurant with local Piedmontese as well as Tuscan offerings..

Trattoria Decoratori & Imbianchini, via Lanfranchi 28 (Near the Gran Madre Church), ☎ + 39 011 819 0672. fixed menu €24, beverages excluded.. A Livella, Corso so Belgio 50 / A, ☎ + 39 011 86 00 173. Stylish restaurant with moderate prices.. Trattoria San Domenico, Strada della Pronda, 15, ☎ + 39 011 701674. Traditional Italian food.. Pizzeria Due Torri, Corso Peschiera 309, ☎ + 39 011 722486. Very good pizza and paste dishes. Friendly efficient staff.. Il Povero Felice, Via Fidia, 28, ☎ + 39 011 728928. Good Italian local restaurant..

Ristorante Del Cambio, Piazza Carignano, 2, ☎ + 39 011 546690. A very posh and exclusive cafe and restaurant. Set in the beautiful Piazza Carignano, Del Cambio serves all of the traditional Piemontese delicacies.. Was supposedly a favorite of famous Italian politician Camillio Benso di Cavour.. Mare Nostrum, Via Matteo Pescatore, 16, ☎ + 39 011 839 4543. Excellent southern Italian fish dishes. The starter is a must, just one entry on the menu, you receive a series of small dishes of the day..

Options For Drink

Where before there were boatsheds, you will find many modern bars and nightclubs by the river Po at the Murazzi close to the bridge Ponte Vittorio Emanuele. Closer to the historical center, there are many charming old world cafes.. Vinicola Al Sorij, Via Matteo Pescatore 10c (close to Piazza Vittorio), ☎ + 39 011 835667. wine and entries. Zonk, Via Gian Francesco Bellezia, 20, ☎ 011 521 7568NOCC. In the heart of the Quadrilatero Romano, Zonk features an expansive cocktail list (from Mojitos to Manhattans to cocktails with dried, powdered scorpions), long wine list and nightly aperitivo buffet in a funky environment..

When the food is cleared away a live DJ starts spinning.. caffe rossini, Corso Regina Margherita, 80 (at the corner to Via Gioacchino), ☎ + 39 011 521 4105. Caffe Rossini is a nice Caffe / Pub with music and young local people.. lab, Piazza Vittorio Veneto, 13 / E, ☎ + 39 011 8170669. modern bar with lots of young people and nice music. some place to go out during the week when the city is sleeping.. Caffe al Bicerin, Piazza della Consolata, 5, ☎ + 39 011 436 9325. is home to the classic Torinese drink, the Bicerin. A mix of coffee, hot chocolate and cream, it is a wonderful treat on a raw winter day..

Located in the small but scenic Piazza della Consolata, across the square is the elaborate Baroque church, Chiesa della Consolata.. Birrificio Torino, Via Parma, 30, ☎ + 39 011 2876562. 20; 00-2; 00. Brewpub restaurant. Four regular Birrificio beers brewed on premises. Good menu with recommended matched beers.. More restaurant than pub. Can be very busy.. Caffe dell'Orologio, Via Morgari 16 / a (Zona; San Salvario), ☎ + 39 011 579 4274. Una sola filosofia, quella del vivere bene, sentendosi sempre a casa..

Il locale e grande e bellissimo, e rimasto con l'impronta originaria e colpisce chiunque ci entri per la prima volta. Lovely ambience and great staff you felt they were excited about everything on the menu.. Basso 30, via Sant'Agostino 30 / a, ☎ + 39 011 578 8288. Due modi di bere, mangiare e oziare fino a tardi..

Where To Sleep

Hotel Due Mondi, Via Saluzzo, 3 (Savoyard City). Singles, doubles, and suites. Breakfast included.. Bed & Breakfast Casa Romar, Corso Chieti, 5, ☎ + 39 011 899 9403.. Hotel Nizza Turin, Via Nizza, 9, ☎ + 39 011 669 0516.. Hotel Conte Biancamano, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 73, ☎ + 39 011 562 3281.. Hotel Bologna, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, 60, ☎ + 39 011 562 0193. Is right across the street from Porta Nuova station. Single rooms are €50 per night and the staff are sweethearts.. Doria, Via Academia Albertina, 42 (near to Porta Nuova Train Station, Center), ☎ + 39 011 889300. TVs and bathrooms in the room, with very friendly staff..

Single rooms are €30, doubles €40... Bed and Breakfast Let e Colasion, Corso Brunelleschi 46 (near the Metro and the ring road), ☎ + 39 331 8083226. Free parking. Bed & Breakfast Torino Inn, Via Nizza, 50 (Located 150 meters far from the Subway station ' Nizza '). Private bathroom. Free WiFi.. Holiday Inn Turin - Corso Francia, Piazza Massaua, 21 (Opposite the Massaua station of the Turin Metro), ☎ + 39 011 740187. Modern well furnished hotel. Reasonable breakfast buffet.. WiFi, but slow. Underground parking..

Hotel Artua ' & Solferino, via Brofferio, 3 (Piazza Solferino), ☎ + 39 011 517 5301. Rooms for 1-4 people. Internet access and parking available. $80 - $200.. Hotel Interporto, Sesta Strada Interporto Sud Sito, ☎ + 39 011 3981600, fax; + 39 011 3981750. Easily accessible from the Caselle highways and the nearby Caselle international airport, the three star Hotel Interporto is located in the Turin area.. Hotel Savoy Sestriere, Via Fralteve 7 (Sestriere), ☎ + 39 0122 77040, fax; + 39 0122 76326. The Savoy Sestriere is three star hotel located in the city centre..

A comfortable position to reach the ski slopes and lifts and the swimming centre. This three star hotel of Sestriere offers a large selection of bedrooms divided in single, double, triple, quadruple and suite.. All rooms include modern service, as the internet access, and the private bath. The junior suite also boast a small living room and the Jacuzzi bathtub. €65 for a single, and €90 for a double.. Relais Villa Matilde, Via Marconi 29 (10090 Romano Canavese), ☎ + 39 0125 639290. The Relais Villa Matilde Hotel is located in Romano Canavese, only 35 km away from Turin..

Romano Canavese is a peaceful ancient town, dominated by a high bell tower and, situated near the boundaries of Valle d'Aosta.. Le Petit Hotel, Via San Francesco d'Assisi, 21, ☎ + 39 011 561 2626.. NH Lingotto, Via Nizza 262, ☎ + 39 011 6642000. Four star business hotel in a former Fiat Lingotto factory located just outside city center. Large high ceilinged rooms. Tip; ask at reception for key to the roof !. NH Art + Tech, Via Nizza, 230, ☎ + 39 011 6642000. Also at Lingotto, this hotel has 5 stars and features the architecture of Renzo Piano..

Hotel Diplomatic, Via Cernaia 42, ☎ + 39 011 561 2444.. Hotel Victoria, Via Nino Costa, 4, ☎ + 39 011 561 1909. Three star. Junior Suites feature two person jacuzzi bathtubs. Free wireless Internet in most rooms and lobby.. NH Santo Stefano, Via Porta Palatina, 19, ☎ + 39 011 522 3311. Located in the heart of the historical Torino, this hotel has also a beautiful spa. Few steps away from the nightlife of Quadrilatero Romano.. The Grand Hotel Sitea, Via Carlo Alberto 35, ☎ + 39 011 517 0171. Within easy walking distance of the Piazza San Carlo. Decent restaurant, unfailingly polite and helpful staff..

Rooms well appointed, and well serviced.. Golden Palace, Via dell'Arcivescovado, 18, ☎ + 39 011 551 2111. A 5 star luxury hotel with charming rooms and impressive halls. Close to Via Roma and Piazza Castello.. AC Hotel Torino, Via Bisalta, 11, ☎ + 39 011 639 5091. Next to Eataly and Lingotto center this 5 star hotel offer good prices for a quality accommodation.. Boston Art Hotel, Via Andrea Massena, 70, ☎ + 39 011 500359. Exclusive 4 star design hotel in Turin historical center, near train station..

Principi di Piemonte, Via Piero Gobetti, 15, ☎ + 39 011 55151. Another 5 star hotel right in the center of the historical district and around the corner from shopping hub and pedestrian street, Via Lagrange..

How To Stay Safe

Generally Turin can be considered a safe city. Be aware that the Porta Nuova area (train station) can be pretty dangerous in its east side, not only at night (watch out for pickpockets).. This especially applies to the San Salvario neighbourhoods, which lies between the station and Parco Valentino. Be very careful especially with your luggage and backpacks. Also the areas near Porta Palazzo can be dangerous, especially in the smaller streets.. Turin is home to two football clubs, Juventus and Torino, playing both in Serie A Juventus are the most successful club side in Italian domestic football and have won the UEFA Champions League twice in their history, while Torino also have a proud history..

Juventus play at the Juventus Stadium in the north of the city while Torino play at the Olympic Stadium renovated for the 2006 Winter Games.. The rivalry between the two clubs is intense, so one would exercise caution when wearing their colours (Juventus wear black and white, Torino a brownish red) when the other side is playing.. Wearing the colours of other Italian sides (AC Milan, Internazionale, Lazio, Roma, Fiorentina and Napoli in particular) when they are playing Juventus should also be avoided, especially the colours of the two Milan sides and Fiorentina..

Where To Go Next

The city of Turin is surrounded by magnificent XVI, XVII and XVIII residences, like Royal Palace and Carignano Palace (in the centre of the city), Valentino Castle (inside the city, near the Po river, within Valentino Park), Rivoli Castle (10 km west of the city), Stupinigi Hunting Pavilion (between the town of Orbassano and Nichelino, south of the city), the Racconigi Castle (near border with Cuneo province). The two main Savoy's hunting reserves, La Mandria Park and Stupinigi Park. The Alps. Turin is a city that feels its mountain legacy and their proximity is why so many inhabitants have second homes in the thousands of little valley villages..

During Summer, if you have a day and want to relax, take a trip to Gran Paradiso National Park, or Orsiera Rocciavre Park, or Val Varaita Park.. During Winter, the Alps offer a wide range of ski resorts, from one of the world's greatest, Via Lattea, to a number of small ski areas which are less crowded and cheaper.. Saint Michael's Abbey (Sacra di San Michele) a fascinating ancient abbey built on top of a rock at the beginning of Susa Valley..

History

The Taurini were an ancient Celto Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the centre of modern Piedmont.. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal since his allies were the Insubres. The Taurini and the Insubres had a long standing feud. Their chief town was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three day siege.. As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum and afterwards Julia Augusta Taurinorum..

Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.. The Taurini tribe is the origin of the city of Turin Celtic in origin, they joined the Ligurian tribes peacefully. The city's symbol and coat of arms is the rampant bull Torino in Italian literally means " young bull " and in Greek tauros means " bull ".. The Salassi, another Celtic Italian tribe, was also part of the Piedmont area which was eventually destroyed by the Romans..

The language of the Piedmont region, Piedmontese, still contains many words of Celtic origin to this day and is more than a dialect it is indeed a separate language spoken by the people of Turin and the Piedmont region, giving them a unique sense of identity and affinity with their heritage.. In the 1st century BC, probably 28 BC, the Romans created a military camp, later dedicated to Augustus. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, but especially in the neighbourhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano..

Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman City's Decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani, later incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama. The Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral.. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Lombards, then the Franks of Charlemagne. The Contea di Torino was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050..

After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin it was ruled as a prince bishopric by the Bishops.. In 12301235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants.. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The University of Turin was also founded during this period..

Emmanuel Philibert, also known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale and Via Nuova were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the Palazzo Reale was also built.. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid..

In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duchy of Savoy acquired part of the former Duchy of Milan, including Turin, and the architect Filippo Juvarra began a major redesign of the city.. Now the capital of a European kingdom, Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.. Turin, like the rest of Piedmont, was annexed by the French Empire in 1802. The city thus became seat of the prefecture of P department until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital..

In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont Sardinia led the struggle towards the unification of Italy. In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united Kingdom of Italy until 1865, when the capital was moved to Florence and then to Rome after the conquest of the Papal States in 1870.. In 1871, the Frjus Tunnel was opened, making Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants.. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the Mole Antonelliana, the Egyptian Museum, the Gran Madre di Dio church and Piazza Vittorio Veneto were built in this period..

The late 1800s were also a period of rapid industrialisation, especially in the automotive sector in 1899 Fiat was established in the city, followed by Lancia in 1906. The Universal Exposition held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of Art Nouveau design, and the city hosted the same event in 1911.. By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants.. After the Great War, harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Lingotto Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably Antonio Gramsci..

On the other hand, Benito Mussolini largely subsidised the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin was then a target of Allied strategic bombing during World War II, being heavily damaged in its industrial areas by the air raids.. The Allied's campaign in Italy started off from the South and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for about a couple of years.. During the Allied drive to liberate northern Italy, the Allied High Command in Italy realized that they only had a slight advantage over the German Army in the region; as a result British Field Marshal Alexander made a risky decision to include help from the French 27th Alpine Division or the French Alpine Army..

The French 27th Division was stationed along the border between France and Italy in order to prevent the Germans from threatening the French Riviera; however the inhabitants of the Val d'Aosta region of northwest Italy have historical links to France and the French Government seeking revenge for the invasion from Fascist Italy in 1940 as well as historical links wished to annex all of the territory west of Turin.. The French Offense from the Alps went from being a victory into becoming a route of the German Army in the region west of Turin and the French Army invaded much deeper into northwest Italy than anyone expected..

The result of the French offensive meant that French troops reached Turin from the west while the units of the Brazilian Expeditionary arrived in Turin from the east. As a result of both armies arriving in the region of Turin there was a great deal of confusion and intermingling as well as a political dispute at allied headquarters.. Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of Spring Offensive of 1945. By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of Brazilian Expeditionary Force reached the city, it was already freed by the Italian Partisans, that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945..

Days later, troops from the US Army's 1st Armored and 92nd Infantry Divisions came to substitute the Brazilians.. In the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the Italian economic miracle of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundred of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy.. The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of the Automobile Capital of Italy and the Detroit of Italy..

In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one fourth of its total in 30 years.. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin hosted the Winter Olympic Games..

Main Sights

Turin's historical architecture is predominantly Baroque and was developed under the Kingdom of Savoy. Nonetheless the main street of the city centre, Via Roma, was built during the Fascist era as an example of Italian Rationalism, replacing former buildings already present in this area.. Via Roma runs between Piazza Carlo Felice and Piazza Castello squares. Buildings on the portion between Piazza Carlo Felice and Piazza San Carlo were designed by rationalist architect Marcello Piacentini.. These blocks were built into a reticular system, composed by austere buildings in clear rationalist style, such as the impressive Hotel Principi di Piemonte and the former Hotel Nazionale in Piazza CLN..

Porches are built in a continuous entablature and marked with double columns, to be consistent with those of Piazza San Carlo. The section of the street between Piazza San Carlo and Piazza Castello was built in eclectic style, with arcades characterised by Serliana type arches.. To this day Via Roma is the street featuring the most fashionable boutiques of the city.. Via Roma crosses one of the main squares of the city the pedestrianized Piazza San Carlo, built by Carlo di Castellamonte in the 17th century..

In the middle of the square stands the equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert, also known as Caval d Brons in local dialect; the monument depicts the Duke sheathing his sword after the Battle of St Quentin.. Piazza San Carlo arcades host the most ancient cafes of the city, such as Caff Torino and Caff San Carlo.. On the northern edge of Via Roma stands Piazza Castello, regarded as the heart of the city. The half pedestrianized square hosts some significant buildings such as Palazzo Reale, the Palazzo Madama, the former Baroque Teatro Regio di Torino and the Biblioteca Reale which hosts the Leonardo da Vinci self portrait..

Moreover, Piazza Castello hosts a Fascist era building, the Torre Littoria, a sort of skyscraper which was supposed to become the headquarters of the Fascist party, although it never served as such.. The building's style is quite different from the Baroque style of Piazza Castello. The square regularly hosts the main open space events of the city, live concerts included.. As for the southern part of the street, Via Roma ends in Piazza Carlo Felice and in its Giardino Sambuy, a wide fenced garden right in the middle of the square..

Across from Piazza Carlo Felice stands the monumental faade of Porta Nuova railway station, the central station of the city built between 1861 and 1868 by the architect Alessandro Mazzucchetti.. The passengers building was recently renovated to host a shopping mall and more efficient passenger service offices. However, it is still an example of monumental architecture, with its stately foyer and some baroque sights, such as the Sala Reale.. In Piazza Castello converge some of the main streets of the city centre..

Among them one of the most significant is the arcaded Via Po, built by Amedeo di Castellamonte in 1868 and featuring some interesting buildings, such as the first and original building of the University of Turin and the historical Caff Fiorio, which was the favourite cafe of the 19th century politicians.. Via Po ends in Piazza Vittorio Veneto, the largest Baroque square in Europe and today heart of Turin nightlife. Piazza Vittorio features the most fashionable bars and not far from here, along the Po riverfront, the Murazzi quays used to host several bars and nightclubs open till the morning until a few years ago..

Parallel to Via Roma, other two popular pedestrian streets, namely Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto, cross the old town from Via Po to Corso Vittorio Emanuele II. Their recent pedestrianisation has improved their original commercial vocation.. In particular, Via Lagrange has recently increased the presence of luxury boutiques. This street also hosts the Egyptian Museum of Turin, home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt.. Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto cross two significant squares of the city, respectively. The former crosses Piazza Carignano, well known mainly for the undulating concave - convex - concave Baroque faade of Palazzo Carignano..

This building used to host the Parlamento Subalpino and today houses the Museum of the Risorgimento. The square also features the Teatro Carignano, a well conserved Baroque theatre. Via Carlo Alberto crosses Piazza Carlo Alberto, a big square hosting the rear faade of Palazzo Carignano, in eclectic style.. On the other side stands the monumental Biblioteca Nazionale.. Not far from Via Po stands the symbol of Turin, namely the Mole Antonelliana, so named after the architect who built it, Alessandro Antonelli. Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish synagogue..

Nowadays it houses the National Museum of Cinema and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world. The building is depicted on the Italian 2 cent coin.. Just behind Piazza Castello stands the Turin Cathedral, dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, which is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491-1498 and is adjacent to an earlier bell tower.. Annexed to the cathedral is the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, the current resting place of the Shroud of Turin. The Chapel was added to the structure in 1668-1694, designed by Guarini..

The Basilica of Corpus Domini was built to celebrate an alleged miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off an monstrance containing the Blessed Sacrament; the monstrance fell to the ground, while the host remained suspended in air.. The present church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of Ascanio Vitozzi.. Next to the Turin Cathedral stand the Porte Palatine, an ancient Roman medieval structure that served as one of four Roman city gates along the city walls of Turin. This gate allowed access from north to the cardus maximus, the typical second main street of a Roman town..

The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy. Close to this site, the 51,300 square meters Piazza della Repubblica plays host to the biggest open market in Europe, locally known as mercato di Porta Palazzo.. West of the Porte Palatine stands the Quadrilatero Romano, the old medieval district recently renewed. The current neighbourhood is characterised by its tiny streets and its several medieval buildings and today it is popular for its aperitivo bars and its small shops run by local artisans..

The hub of the Quadrilatero is Piazza Emanuele Filiberto.. South of the Quadrilatero Romano stands Via Garibaldi, another popular street of the city. It is a 1 km pedestrian street between Piazza Castello and Piazza Statuto which features some of the old shops of the city.. Large Piazza Statuto is another example of Baroque square with arcades.. Another main street of downtown is Via Pietro Micca, which starts in Piazza Castello and ends in the large Piazza Solferino. The street continues in Via Cernaia up to Piazza XXV Dicembre, which features the former Porta Susa passengers building, recently relocated a little more southward..

Until 2012, Porta Susa was regarded as the second railway station of the city but after the majestic reconstruction of the train station, along with the undergrounding of the railway, it now represents the central station of Turin.. The new passengers building is situated between Corso Bolzano and Corso Inghilterra and it is an example of contemporary architecture, being a 300 metre long and 19 metre high glass and steel structure.. Porta Susa is currently the international central station of the city and it is becoming the central hub of railway transportation of the city, being the station in which local trains, national trains and high speed national and international trains converge..

Close to Via Cernaia stands the Cittadella, located in the Andrea Guglielminetti garden. What remains of the old medieval and modern fortress of the city, it is a starting point for a tour into the old underground tunnels below the city.. South East of the Centro, under Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, San Salvario district extends till Corso Bramante, delimited by the railway on west side and by the Po river in the East.. The district is crossed by two main streets, Via Nizza and Via Madama Cristina, and saw in the most recent years a nightlife it had never have been before, as several low cost bars and restaurants opened recently..

The district is an example of integration between different cultures, cause several immigrants began to live here. The centre of the district is Piazza Madama Cristina which hosts a big open market, and around it several commercial activities are flourishing.. Here it stands Hora's, the most popular Kepap restaurant in the town.. Parco del Valentino park is situated in the district and, although not situated in the Centro, it represents kind of central park of the city. Also because of the proximity with the city centre, the park is very popular amount the local people, during the day but also in the night, because of the several bars and nightclubs placed here, following an ideal continuation of the Murazzi trend..

From the terraces of Parco del Valentino, many sight of the hills on the other side of the river can be appreciated.. In the centre of the park stands the Castello del Valentino. This castle has a horseshoe shape, with four round towers at each angle, and a wide inner court with a marble pavement.. The ceilings of the false upper floors are clearly in transalpino style. The faade sports the huge coat of arms of the House of Savoy.. Another significant cluster of buildings in the park is the Borgo Medioevale, a replica of medieval mountain castles of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, built for the International Exhibition of 1884..

Among the other significant buildings, along Corso Massimo d'Azeglio, the Torino Esposizioni complex stands with its monumental main entrance with a large full height porch, the circular building which hosts a night club, and the Teatro Nuovo, a Turin theatre mostly focused on ballets exhibitions.. Another significant building is the largest Synagogue of the city, in Piazzetta Primo Levi square. Its architecture stand in the main sight of the city, as characterised by four large towers 27 meters high topped by four onion domes..

South of Centro stands the Crocetta district, considered one of the most exclusive districts of the city, because of high rated residential buildings.. Heart of the district is the partially pedestrianized area crossed by Corso Trieste, Corso Trento and Corso Duca D'Aosta, plenty of some notable residential buildings in eclectic, neo Gothic and Art Nouveau style.. The area was built between 1903 and 1937 replacing the old parade ground, which was moved in the Southern part of the city.. North of this area stands the GAM, one of the two Museum of Modern Arts of the Turin Metro area..

The Museum stands in front a huge monument situated in the centre of the roundabout between Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and Corso Galileo Ferraris the Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II, a King of Savoy statue situated on a 39 meters high column.. Next to the Museum, another significant residential building hosts the head office of Juventus, one of the two main Turin football clubs.. West of this area the main building of Polytechnic University of Turin stands along Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi.. The 1958 building is a complex of 122,000 square meters, hosts approximately 30,000 students every year and is considered one of the major Institutes of Technology of the country mainly due to the vocation of the city for the industrialization, pushed by the automotive sector..

This institute recently expanded in the western district of Cenisia with additional modern buildings.. Crocetta is crossed by large and modern avenues, such as Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, Corso Galileo Ferraris, and Corso Einaudi. These avenues feature endless rows of trees which are a symbol of Turin's typical urbanity.. However, the most popular avenue is Corso De Gasperi, which, albeit smaller than other avenues of the district, hosts one of the most fashionable open markets of the city, the so called Mercato della Crocetta, in which it is possible to find some discounted branded clothing among the more popular ones..

The Western border of Crocetta is instead an example of contemporary architecture.. The huge avenue, made up of Corso Mediterraneo and Corso Castelfidardo, is part of Spina Centrale boulevard and was recently built over the old railway as a result, the avenue is very large and modern, having been rebuilt with valuable materials, including a characteristic lighting system supported by white high poles.. This avenue hosts some examples of contemporary art, such as Mario Merz's Igloo fountain or the Per Kirkeby's Opera per Torino monument in Largo Orbassano..

The East side of the district is also known as Borgo San Secondo and was so named after the church of the same name standing in Via San Secondo, a major street in the neighbourhood.. This area is located near Porta Nuova railway station and is actually older than the rest of the district, featuring several apartment buildings from the late 19th century. A local open market is held in Piazza San Secondo and along Via Legnano.. The market square also hosts the former washhouse and public baths of the neighbourhood, among the oldest examples of their kind in Turin; unfortunately this facility lies vacant and run down today..

One of the main thoroughfares crossing Borgo San Secondo is Via Sacchi, which serves as an ideal gate to the city centre its Serlian arcades on the west side of the street host some significant boutiques and hotels, such as the historic Pfatisch pastry shop and the Turin Palace Hotel.. South of Via Sacchi, Ospedale Mauriziano is one of the ancient and major hospitals of the city. Going further southwards, it is possible to appreciate an interesting residential cluster of old public housing gravitating around Via Arquata..

Bordered by Corso Castelfidardo, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Corso Trapani and Corso Peschiera, this small district in mainly significant for hosting the recent expansion of Turinese Institute of Technology Politecnico.. The expansion was possible after under grounding the railway under Corso Castelfidardo and the subsequent disposal of the old buildings dedicated to the train maintenance present in this area. The Politecnico expanded its facilities trough two huge overpass buildings over the avenue, linked to new buildings on the west side. This cluster of buildings forms an evocative square with a unique architectural style..

The main building on the west side hosts a General Motors research centre, the General Motors Powertrain Europe. The Politecnico area extends than till Via Boggio with further facilities hosted in the former OGR facilities.. The Institute plans to further build new facilities in the current parking area.. North of Politecnico facilities, the main building of the OGR former cluster, which consists in three 180 meters long joint parallel buildings, became recently a big open space which hosts temporary exhibitions and during the hot seasons, its external spaces became a fashionable site to have a typical Italian aperitivo..

North of OGR, a former prison complex called Le Nuove is a significant example of old prison European building. The complex has been built between 1857 and 1869 during the reign of Victor Emmanuel II.. After having being disposed during the 1990s, the complex is today a museum and it is possible to visit its facilities.. An example of contemporary art is the heating plant in Corso Ferrucci, which has been covered with aluminium panels. Another building, now abandoned, is the former Westinghouse factory of train brakes situated in Via Borsellino..

The remaining part of the district is mainly formed by residential buildings with not significant architectural value.. The district had its development mainly after the World War II, following the industrial development of the town in particular, the development of Lancia automotive factories in the Borgo San Paolo district and the consequent population of the nearby areas, including Cenisia.. Main avenues which are crossing the district are Corso Ferrucci and Corso Racconigi. This last one is hosting a huge daily open market, the Mercato di Corso Racconigi..

The smaller district of the city is Cit Turin. This small triangle surrounded by Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, Corso Francia and Corso Inghilterra hosts however some high rated residential buildings.. Cit Turin is considered by local people a prestigious residential neighbourhood. In the district there are many buildings in Art Nouveau, Art Deco and Neo Gothic style. Among them, one of the most impressive and well known is the Casa Della Vittoria. Also Casa Fenoglio is another notable building. Both are facing Corso Francia..

The district is well known for its commercial vocation mainly in its two main streets, Via Duchessa Jolanda and Via Principi d'Acaja, ideally crossing each other among the gardens Giardino Luigi Martini, locally called Piazza Benefica, which hosts a popular open market.. The district is also characterised by two massive recent buildings the 90s new Turin courthouse Palazzo di Giustizia, and the ongoing construction of the first real skyscraper of Turin, the Grattacielo Intesa Sanpaolo, which will host the headquarters of one of the major Italian private banks..

San Donato district is located between Corso Francia, Corso Lecce, Corso Potenza, Via Nole, the Parco Dora and Corso Principe Oddone.. It was populated since the medieval era, but becomes bigger during the 19th century, prospering around the canal Canale di San Donato, which does not exist any more, currently replaced by the central street of the district, Via San Donato.. Buildings in the district are relatively recent, except for the oldest group of small houses located in the area of Brusachr located along Via Pacinotti near the small Piazza Paravia..

The conservation of the street and of this old building influences the straightness of Via San Donato, which makes a slight curve to result in parallel with Via Pacinotti before ending in central Piazza Statuto square.. Main church of the district is the Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita, which with its 83 meters height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the Mole Antonelliana, the Intesa Sanpaolo skyscraper, the Torre Littoria and the two pennons of the Juventus Stadium..

The church is hosting the Istituto Suore Minime di Nostra Signora del Suffragio and it was promoted and designed by Francesco Fa di Bruno.. The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free.. The small building near the church, is what remains of Casa Tartaglino, a small residential building which was also extended and modified by Faa di Bruno.. Villino Cibrario in Via Saccarelli is another significant building designed by Barnaba Panizza in 1842. The building was equipped with a large garden which was eliminated to host the street. The neighbourhood has a high concentration of historic buildings in Art Nouveau style designed by architect Pietro Fenoglio..

Other significant buildings are the Villa Boringhieri in Via San Donato, and other Art Nouveau and Neo Gothic buildings are situated in Via Piffetti and Via Durandi.. Among the modern buildings of the district, the most significant one is of course the Torre BBPR Tower. The building is representing the post rationalism Italian architecture. Tower is facing the central Piazza Statuto square.. District is crossed by some significant avenues on Corso Svizzera, which crosses the district from North To South, faces the Business Centre Piero Della Francesca, where the offices of Tuttosport, one of the three national sports daily newspapers has its head offices. Also on Corso Svizzera, stands one of the oldest hospitals of the city, the Ospedale Ademeo di Savoia, specialised in infectious diseases. Other major avenues are Corso Umbria and Corso Tassoni..

Another big avenue, which border the district on its East, is Corso Principe Oddone, which in the past was along the railway to Milan.. Currently the railway has been under grounded the avenue will be enlarged and have same architecture style of southern Corso Inghilterra in downtown, becoming one of the major avenue of Turin.. Northern part of the district was part of the former industrial district of Turin, recently reconverted to a park called Parco Dora. Mainly, in San Donato the portion reconverted was the one occupied by the plant of Michelin and FIAT ironwork plants..

Differently for other portions of Parco Dora, this part has been totally reconverted to park without letting any evidence of the industrial area except for the cooling tower which stands along Corso Umbria and became a symbol of the park.. Works are completed in the western area, where Corso Mortara has been closed to traffic and moved just a bit northern and covered by an artificial tunnel. It is possible to access the southern shore of the Dora river.. South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels sis hosting a new shopping mall called Centro Commerciale Parco Dora. East of Via Livorno, works are still partially in progress, with the Dora river still to be uncovered by a big slab, on which the FIAT plants where used to stand..

West of Via Livorno, the Environment Park is a research centre for renewable engines.. Aurora is one of the most ancient districts which developed out of the medieval city walls, north of the historical city centre.. It stretches from downtown northern boundaries in Corso Regina Margherita up to Corso Vigevano and Corso Novara in the North Side; the western boundary is Corso Principe Oddone and the eastern border is the Dora river.. The district was named Aurora after the so called cascina Aurora, an old farmstead lying north of the Dora river, right at the intersection between Corso Giulio Cesare and Corso Emilia..

The farmstead has long been demolished and the area has been converted to office buildings, hosting the Turinese textile company Gruppo Finanziario Tessile headquarters until the early 21st century.. The historical hub of the district is Borgo Dora, a small neighbourhood next to Porta Palazzo and enclosed by Corso Regina Margherita, Via Cigna, the Dora river and Corso Giulio Cesare.. Once known as Borgo del Pallone or Balon in Piedmontese dialect, this neighbourhood is famous for its mercatino del Balon or simply Balon, the Turinese flea market that opens every Saturday in its tiny and twisted streets..

Borgo Dora hosts several remarkable places, such as Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza, also known as Cottolengo, a well known charitable organization which has been operating for almost 200 years in the city; Arsenale della Pace, a former weapons factory that currently hosts the headquarters of SERMIG, a nonprofit association which assists poor and homeless people; Caserma Cavalli, one of the most representative buildings of the district, a former barracks topped by a clock tower which now hosts Scuola Holden, a storytelling and performing arts school; the evocative Cortile.

del Maglio, a covered pedestrian area featuring bars and clubs.. Across from Cortile del Maglio and Arsenale della Pace stands a wide pedestrian area which features a hot air balloon, a clear allusion to the neighbourhood's old name Balon recently installed, the balloon is open to public which can now take an interesting view of the city from this new high observation point.. Right at the borders of Borgo Dora stands part of Porta Palazzo open market which hosts the New Exhibition Hall, designed by the Italian architect Massimiliano Fuksas..

The building has replaced the Clothes Market, one of the four covered pavilions of Porta Palazzo market, but unfortunately this glass green shaded building has been highly criticized because of its lack of usability for commercial activities, albeit an example of contemporary architecture.. Another interesting building at the borders of the neighbourhood is Porta Milano, a former 19th century railway station that marked the terminus of Ciri Lanzo railway line until the 1980s. To this day, the station is no longer in use as well as the rails up to Piazza Baldissera..

The station building was recently renovated and now hosts some old locomotives, even though it is not open to the public. Unfortunately, the old rails crossing the district are totally disused and neglected, adding decay to the whole area.. Borgo Dora, as many other pockets of Aurora, is characterized by the marked multi ethnicity of its population, being home to a large community of immigrants from emerging countries.. West of Borgo Dora stands Rione Valdocco, enclosed by Via Cigna, Corso Regina Margherita, Corso Principe Oddone and the Dora river. This neighbourhood hosts the significant architecture of Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice in the homonymous square and behind the church stands San Pietro in Vincoli old cemetery..

Overall, the main thoroughfares of the West side of Aurora are Via Cigna, which crosses the district from North to South, Corso Vercelli, a historical avenue starting north of the Dora river, and Corso Principe Oddone, part of the long Spina Centrale boulevard that will be built over the undergrounded Turin Milan railway.. However, the Spina Centrale project is proceeding slowly because of the lack of funds and the boulevard is still occupied by a large worksite along its span. Once completed, Aurora district will be connected to Eastern San Donato, thanks to a better connection among the roads of the two adjacent districts..

As for the rest of Aurora, the district is crossed by an important thoroughfare named Corso Giulio Cesare, a long boulevard that extends from Porta Palazzo up to Turin Trieste motorway entrance in the Northern urban fringe of Turin.. Other significant roads are Corso Palermo, Via Bologna and Corso Regio Parco, mostly in the East side of Aurora which is known as Borgo Rossini. Albeit not a road, the Dora river is also a significant element for the whole district, since it completely crosses it from West to East..

The area north of the river features a mix of old residential buildings and remains of former factories and facilities from the 20th century.. An example are the remains of FIAT Officine Grandi Motori in Corso Vigevano, an old factory that produced big industrial and automotive Diesel engines, a sort of symbol of the industrial history of Turin.. Another disused facility is Astanteria Martini in Via Cigna, a former emergency department from the 1920s which has been lying vacant since long.. As for the old residential buildings of the area, this part of Aurora hosts the oldest public housing block of the city, built by Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari in 1908 in lieu of an old dilapidated small farm once known as Chiabotto delle Merle..

Despite its run down look, the famous Lavazza coffee company, along with IAAD School of Design, chose this part of the city as the location for their new headquarters, which will be built in a contemporary building dubbed Nuvola right at the borders of Borgo Rossini.. Designed by the architect Gino Zucchi, this project is still a work in progress but excavations in the area revealed the remains of a medieval cemetery and an early Christian basilica; these findings will be preserved and will be shown to the public..

Borgo Rossini hosts a number of businesses, for instance the Robe di Kappa flagship store and the Cineporto a.k.a. La Casa dei Produttori.. The Santuario della Consolata, a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the 10th century Monastery of St Andrew, and is a work by Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903.. Outside the city are the Basilica of Our Lady, Help of Christians built by St John Bosco, the Gran Madre built in 1818 on occasion of the return of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia and Santa Maria del Monte on Monte dei Cappuccini..

In the hills overlooking the city, the Basilica of Superga provides a view of Turin against a backdrop of the snow capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia.. Superga can be reached by means of the Superga Rack Railway from Sassi suburb. The Basilica of Superga was built by Amadeus II of Savoy as an ex voto for the liberation of Turin, and served as a royal mausoleum since 1772.. The most popular park in the city is Parco del Valentino. In 1961, during the celebrations of Italia61, an important international exhibition took place in the park with 800 exhibitors from 19 countries..

For the occasion the plan for the new lighting of the park, along with its fountains and paths, was assigned to Guido Chiarelli, the head engineer at the city hall.. Other large parks are Parco della Pellerina, Parco Colletta, Parco Rignon, Parco Colonnetti and the University botanical gardens.. Around the city, there are several other parks, such as La Mandria Regional Park and the Parco della Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi, once hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those situated on the hill of Turin..

Many parks are smaller, located in the various districts there is also a total of 240 playgrounds in these parks. In the early 1960s, mayor Amedeo Peyron had the first garden in Italy with games for children inaugurated.. According to a Legambiente report from 2007, Turin is the first Italian city as far as structures and policies on childcare are concerned.. One of the most famous parks featuring a children's playground is Parco della Tesoriera, which is also home to Andrea della Corte Municipal Music Library; this facility is housed in a villa built in 1715 and was once the Royal Treasurer's residence..

The park is located in Parella suburb and it plays host to various concerts in summer.. Rosa Vercellana, commonly known as Rosina and, in Piedmontese as La Bela Rosin, was the mistress and later wife of King Victor Emmanuel II. She was made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda, but never Queen of Italy.. As the Savoy family refused to allow her to be buried next to her husband in the Pantheon, her children had a mausoleum built for her in a similar form and on a smaller scale in Turin, next to the road to the Castello di Mirafiori..

The circular copper domed neoclassical monument, surmounted by a Latin cross and surrounded by a large park, was designed by Angelo Dimezzi and completed in 1888..

Economy

Turin is a major automotive and aerospace centre, home of Fiat group, the sixth largest automotive company in the world. In 2008 the city generated a GDP of 68 billion, ranking as the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power, and 16th in Europe, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers.. The city has been ranked in 2010 by Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a Gamma level city.. Other notable companies operating in Turin are Maserati, Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Iveco, Pininfarina, Bertone, Sparco, Italdesign Giugiaro, General Motors, New Holland, Comau, Magneti Marelli, Graziano Oerlikon, Rai, Ghia, Fioravanti, Intesa Sanpaolo, Kappa, Lavazza, Martini amp; Rossi, Ferrero SpA.

The city is also well known for its aerospace industry Alenia Aeronautica, Thales Alenia Space and Avio. The International Space Station modules Harmony, Columbus, Tranquility, as well as the Cupola and all MPLMs were produced in Turin.. The future European launcher projects beyond Ariane 5 will also be managed from Turin by the new NGL company, a subsidiary of EADS and Finmeccanica..

Culture

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Italy, is home of the Savoy Residences. In addition to the 17th century Royal Palace, built for Madama Reale Christine Marie of France there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns.. Turin is home to Palazzo Chiablese, the Royal Armoury, the Royal Library, Palazzo Madama, Palazzo Carignano, Villa della Regina, and the Valentino Castle.. The complex of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and in the nearby cities of Rivoli, Moncalieri, Venaria Reale, Agli, Racconigi, Stupinigi, Pollenzo and Govone was declared a World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1997..

In recent years, Turin has become an increasingly popular tourist destination, ranking 203rd in the world and 10th in Italy in 2008, with about 240,000 international arrivals.. The Egyptian Museum of Turin specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the Art of Ancient Egypt. It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt.. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors. The Museum of Oriental Art houses one of the most important Asian art collections in Italy..

Other notable museums include the Puppet Museum, the Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile, the Museum of Human Anatomy Luigi Rolando, and the Museo Nazionale della Montagna.. The city is home to the Shroud of Turin a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre.. The origins of the shroud and its image are still the subject of intense debate among scientists, theologians, historians and researchers..

It is popularly believed to be a depiction of Jesus Christ, however this matter is still controversial, as there seems to be a sufficient amount of historical and scientific evidence supporting the idea that it is, or is not, the Holy Face of Jesus.. Nonetheless, it is a symbol of religious devotion and is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions.. Remaining a village for a long time, in 1559 the Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy made Turin the capital of his domains. In the Baroque period, Turin became important to a court and the Duke had the ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital..

He created a city of artists of great repute, especially architects and planners like Carlo di Castellamonte and his son Amedeo, which include the route of a Roman castrum the new capital and build beautiful buildings, Guarino Guarini and, in the 18th century, Filippo Juvarra and Benedetto Alfieri.. As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin became a point of reference, especially in the 20th century.. In the 1920s, the painter Felice Casorati inspired a number of students called The group of six of Turin and these included Carlo Levi, Henry Paolucci, Gigi Chessa, Francis Menzio, Nicola Galante and Jessie Boswell..

Two important artists were born in Turin the sculptor Umberto Mastroianni and the architect Carlo Mollino. Between the 1960s and the 1970s, the international centre of Turin, the presence in the city of artists like Alighiero Boetti, Mario Merz, Giuseppe Penone, Piero Gilardi and Michelangelo Pistoletto.. In those years there was a strong artistic influence of designer Armando Testa, the founder of advertising agency. Currently operating in the city are established artists like Ugo Nespolo and Carol Rama..

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the Duchy of Savoy.. One of the most famous writers of the 17th century was Giambattista Marino, which in 1608 moved to the court of Charles Emmanuel I Marino suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, Gaspare Murtola, and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke.. Perhaps, because of this, in 1615 Marino left Turin and moved to France..

The main literary figures during the Baroque age in Turin were Emanuele Tesauro and Alessandro Tassoni. In the next century Turino hosted the poet Vittorio Alfieri from Asti for a while.. The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.. Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and John Meadows resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was Olimpia Savio..

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Turin was home to writers such as Guido Gozzano, Edmondo De Amicis, Emilio Salgari and Dino Segre, the latter known by the pseudonym of Pitigrilli.. Turin had a very important role in Italian literature after World War II. For the publishing house founded by Giulio Einaudi worked figures such as Cesare Pavese, Italo Calvino, Vitaliano Brancati, Primo Levi, Natalia Ginzburg, Fernanda Pivano, Beppe Fenoglio, Carlo Fruttero and Franco Lucentini.. In more recent years, writers active in the city are Giovanni Arpino, Nico Orengo, Giuseppe Culicchia, Margaret Oggero, Laura Mancinelli, Alessandra Montrucchio, Alessandro Perissinotto, Guido Quartz, Piero Soria and Alessandro Baricco..

Baricco was also among the founders of the Scuola Holden, dedicated to writing techniques teaching.. In the local Piedmontese language has a literary tradition, with names such as Nicoletto da Torino, Ignas Isler, author of epic poems, and Eduard Calv.. After Alexandria, Madrid, New Delhi, Antwerp and Montreal, Turin was chosen by UNESCO as World Book Capital for the year 2006. The International Book Fair is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe.. Turin is home to one of Italy's principal national newspapers, La Stampa, and the sports daily newspaper Tuttosport. The city is also served by other publications such as the Turin editions of La Repubblica, il Giornale, Leggo, City, Metro and E Polis..

RAI has had a production centre in Turin since 1954.. The city has a rich sporting heritage as the home to two historically significant football teams Juventus F.C. and Torino F.C.. Juventus has the larger fan base, especially in southern Italy and worldwide, while Torino enjoys a more localised support.. The two clubs contest the oldest derby in Italy, the Derby della Mole or the Turin derby.. Juventus is Italy's most successful football club and one of the most laureated and important in the world. It ranks joint eighth in the list of the world's clubs with the most official international titles..

The club was Italy's most successful of the 20th century and the first in association football historyremaining the only one in the world to date to have won all possible official continental competitions and the world title.. The Stadio delle Alpi was one of the host stadiums for the 1990 FIFA World Cup and it was demolished in 2006 to make way for Juventus' owned ground, the Juventus Stadium, inaugurated in 2011.. The other city's club, Torino, currently uses the Stadio Olimpico, property of the Comune of Turin, one of the host stadiums for the 1934 FIFA World Cup and the venue of the XX Winter Olympics..

Torino F.C. was founded by breakaways from Juventus and was one of the most formidable teams in the Serie A during the 1940s, hence the nickname Il Grande Torino. In 1949, in the Superga air disaster, a plane carrying almost the whole Torino F.C. team crashed into the Basilica of Superga in the Turin hills.. Valentino Mazzola, father of Ferruccio and Sandro, was among those who perished in the accident.. The C.U.S. Torino volleyball team won the domestic league four times and, in the 197980 season, the Volleyball European Champion's Cup. It was the first team from western Europe to win this competition..

In the 1990s the team was dismantled as a result of financial issues. There is also the largest rugby team of the city by the same name, CUS Torino. the most important basketball team is the PMS Torino, founded in 2009, playing in Legadue.. Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics from 10 February 2006, through 26 February 2006. Turin, with a population of over 865,000 and a metropolitan area of 1.7 million, is the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics and was the largest metropolitan area to host them at the time..

The title of largest metropolitan area to host the Winter Olympics fell to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, when that city hosted the XXI Olympic Winter Games.. The City was awarded with the title of European Capital of Sport 2015. The candidature sees the City strongly committed to increasing sports activities and at the forefront of new technologies thanks to an agreement signed with the Interfaculty School of Motor Sciences of Turin aimed to the dissemination of the project We Sport.. The FISA was founded in Turin in 1892..

Turin was also the home of the Valentino Park motor racing circuit.. On 20 March 2012, UEFA announced that the Juventus Stadium will host the 2014 UEFA Europa League Final. This will be the first time the city of Turin hosts the final of a UEFA club competition.. The hosts ended up being eliminated in the semi finals by Portuguese side Benfica 21. Spanish side Sevilla Ftbol Club beat Portuguese side Benfica. Sevilla won the match 42 on penalties, following a 00 draw after extra time.. Turin is the Italian city where film chromatography was first established. As such, it forms the birthplace of Italian cinema. Because of its historic, geographical and cultural proximity to France, Italian filmmakers were naturally influenced by French cinema and the Lumire brothers..

The first Italian cinema screening occurred in Turin in March 1896. In November 1896, Italian filmmakers performed the first cinema screening of a film before a fee paying audience.. By the start of the 20th century, a number of the first Italian films were aired in Turin. Examples include Giovanni Pastrone Cabiria, in 1914, one of the first blockbusters in history.. The Turin based company Ambrosio Film, established in 1906 by Arturo Ambrosio, was one of the leading forces in Italian cinema and boosted the importance of the city as a filmmaking destination. The company, noted in particular for its historical epics, produced a large number of films until it was dissolved in 1924..

During the 1920s and 30s, Turin hosted a number of film productions and major film studios, such as the Itala film, Aquila and Fert Studios.. Today their heritage is located in the modern Lumiq Studios and Virtual Reality Multi Media Spa Turin's prominence in Italian film continued until 1937, the year Cinecitt was inaugurated in Rome.. After World War II, the cinematic scene in Turin continued to thrive. 1956 saw the opening of the National Museum of Cinema, first housed in the Palazzo Chiablese and then, from 2000, in the imposing headquarters of the Mole Antonelliana..

In 1982 the film critic Gianni Rondolino created Festival Internazionale Cinema Giovani, which later became the Torino Film Festival.. Today Turin is one of the main cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of the Turin Film Commission that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials.. Turin chocolate firms, aside from many kinds of chocolate, produce a typical chocolate called Gianduiotto, named after Gianduja, a local Commedia dell'arte mask..

Every year the town organises CioccolaT, a two week chocolate festival run with the main Piedmontese chocolate producers, such as Caffarel, Streglio, Venchi and others, as well as some big international companies, such as Lindt amp; Sprngli.. Since the mid 1980s, Piedmont has also benefited from the start of the Slow Food movement and Terra Madre, events that have highlighted the rich agricultural and vinicultural value of the Po valley and northern Italy..

Transport

The city currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the 2006 Winter Olympics, parts of it had long been planned.. Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will radically change the shape of the city.. One is the Spina Centrale project which includes the doubling of a major railway crossing the city, the Turin Milan railway locally known as Passante Ferroviario di Torino..

The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard running from North to South of Turin, in a central position along the city.. Porta Susa, on this section, will become Turin's main station to substitute the terminus of Porta Nuova with a through station. Other important stations are Stura, Rebaudengo, Lingotto and Madonna di Campagna railway stations, though not all of them belong to the layout of the Spina Centrale.. The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the VAL system, known as Metrotorino..

This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the 2006 Olympic Games, inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after.. The first leg of the subway system linked the nearby town of Collegno with Porta Susa in Turin's city centre. On 4 October 2007 the line was extended to Porta Nuova and then, in March 2011, to Lingotto.. A new extension of the so called Linea 1 is expected in the near future, reaching both Rivoli in the Western belt of Turin and Piazza Bengasi in the Southeast side of the city..

Furthermore, an alleged Linea 2 is in the pipeline and it is supposed to cross Turin from North to South.. The main street in the city centre, Via Roma, runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era. The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but it is now used as an underground car park.. A project to build an underground system was ready in the 1970s, with government funding for it and for similar projects in Milan and Rome. Whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin's local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary..

The city has an international airport known as Caselle International Airport Sandro Pertini, located in Caselle Torinese, about 13 km from the centre of Turin and connected to the city by a railway service and a bus service.. As of 2010 also a bicycle sharing system, the ToBike, is operational.. The metropolitan area is served by Turin metropolitan railway service..

Geography

Turin is located in Northwest Italy. It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural prosecution of the hills of Monferrato.. Four major rivers pass through the city the Po and three of its tributaries, the Dora Riparia, the Stura di Lanzo and the Sangone.. Turin is located in the border of the humid subtropical climate and oceanic climate zones. This is in contrast to the Mediterranean climate characteristic of the coast of Italy..

Winters are moderately cold but dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier.. During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the Susa Valley.. Its position on the east side of the Alps makes the weather drier than on the west side because of the fhn wind effect..

The highest temperature ever recorded was 37.1 C, while the lowest was 21.8 C.

Things To Learn

The University of Turin (Universita degli Studi di Torino) main campus is located just off Via Po,. Founded in the 16th Century and located in Turin, it is a public university with all the major faculties. Also well known is the Politecnico di Torino, the Polytechnic of Engineering and Architecture.. This last has multiple campuses, including one in the ' Castello del Valentino ' (in the Valentino Park) and two outside the city center, one on Corso Francia while another, dedicated to Automotive Engineering, is located within the ' Lingotto ' Complex which used to be the principal Fiat factory..

Demographics

In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration from Southern Italy and abroad.. Approximately 13.5 per cent of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from Romania, Morocco, Albania, China, and Moldova. Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth.. Around 18 per cent of the population is under 20 years of age, while 22 per cent is over 65. The population of the Turin urban area totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin metropolitan area has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants..

Education

Turin is home to one of Italy's oldest universities, the University of Turin, which still ranks among the best universities in Italy. Another established university in the city is the Polytechnic University of Turin, that ranks among Top 50 universities in the world and 1 in Italy.. The business school ESCP Europe, ranked among the 10 best business schools in Europe, also has a campus in Turin. In recent years some small English language education institutions have been opened..

International Relations

The 6th district of Turin is twinned with.

External Links

Media related to Turin at Wikimedia Commons.

Administration

Turin is split up into 10 boroughs, locally called circoscrizioni; these do not necessarily correspond to historical districts in the city. The following list numerates the present day boroughs and today's location of the historical districts inside them. The mayor of Turin is directly elected every five years. Piero Fassino, the current mayor, belongs to the centre left coalition. Turin's City Council is composed of 50 members..